Neuroses (neurotic disorders) are a large group of psychogenic disorders that include symptoms of depression, anxiety, compulsions, and somatic changes. All of these symptoms have a chronic, relapsing (wave-like) course, with periods of exacerbation and improvement. In aggravations it helps:

In neurotic disorders, disorders in the body are functional (reversible), but a long course with regular exacerbations has a negative impact on the person’s ability to work, especially in professional activities, significantly worsening the quality of life.

The combination and predominance of one or another symptom, psychogenic or somatic component depends on personality type, general health and emotional lability.

Causes of neurosis development

Among the causes of the development of neurosis in modern science consider two components: psychogenic and biological.

Psychogenic causes of neurotic disorders lie in the inability to adequately respond to external stimuli, which causes stress. The first cause of inadequate reaction can be low stress tolerance, high sensitivity even to those things which in stronger people do not cause any pathological reaction of the psyche. For example, dripping water from the faucet may cause strong irritation to some people, while others simply do not notice these sounds. Consequently, the tendency and risk of developing a neurosis is much higher for the former. One cannot speak of the presence of psychopathology in such a person; it is a peculiarity of the personality and character, conditioned by hereditary, genetic or acquired (as a result of upbringing and social environment) factors.

The second cause of psychogenic neurosis is a strong external irritant that even individuals with a “strong psyche” can hardly cope with. Such irritants include chronic stress at work (professional failures, interpersonal relations, management bias), conflicts at home, everyday problems, health problems, loss of close people, financial problems, etc. The risk of neurosis increases with constant overwork, lack of adequate rest, and inability to relax.

The biological cause of neurotic disorders is a disorder of the metabolism of neurotransmitters, hormones, vitamins and other biologically active substances which are responsible for the normal functioning of the central nervous system and higher nervous activity in particular. This cause can not be considered separately from the psychogenic neurosis, because in the end it all comes down to the dysfunction of the neurons of the brain, but what is the primary factor of pathological changes in the nerve cells and is considered to be the main cause of the neurotic disorder.

Symptoms and diagnosis of neuroses
The clinical picture of neurosis is very multifaceted. First of all, all symptoms of neurotic disorder can be divided into two large groups: mental and physical. What they have in common is reversibility (as a result of treatment, symptoms disappear without trace), absence of pronounced changes, a long and wavelike course, exhaustion of the nervous system and reduction in the quality of life.

Mental symptoms include:

High fatigability up to chronic fatigue syndrome;
Sleep disorders, nightmares;
Irritability (one of the irritants can be a causal factor of neurosis);
Existence of anxiety, restlessness, mistrust, fear;
Inability to react adequately to everyday stresses (small arguments, misunderstandings, transport delays, bad weather, pushing a passerby, etc.)
Emotional lability (inability to restrain emotions, rapid change of opposite emotions);
Fixation of attention on an irritant (normally, a person tries to move away from the irritant, eliminate or isolate it; with neurosis, only attention is focused on the irritant, all the time he/she is talking and thinking about it);
Cognitive disorders (deterioration of memory, learning ability);
Disorder of social adaptation (communication with others, fear of new acquaintances);
Inadequate self-esteem.
Symptoms of various organ systems (vegetative and somatic symptoms) are an obligatory component of the clinical picture of neurosis:

Headache, dizziness, tinnitus, impaired gait and balance;
palpitations, aching pains behind sternum (“tickling heart”), surges of blood pressure, rhythm disorders;
Shortness of breath, shortness of breath, shallow breathing, and feeling of a coma in the throat;
Abdominal pain, bloating, loose stools, and poor appetite;
Sweating, shivering, pain without clear localization, weakness;
Disorders of the function of the genitourinary system.
The main difference between the symptoms of neurotic disorder and mental illness is the reversibility of the clinical picture, the absence of psychotic symptoms (delirium, hallucinations) and personality changes.

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